The Hebrew >KI< has 7 meanings:#11 of 11
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                        -GRAND SUMMARY-

The Hebrew word >KI< primarily means >BECAUSE<. A famous
midrash says >KI< has 4 meanings.

However we who speak English must use caution.
I have counted 7 English translations. These 7 meanings are
as follows:

The Hebrew word >KI< has 7 meanings.
=======  ======== ============================================
BECAUSE  Gn18-15a Sarah denied laughing BECAUSE she was afraid
IF       Ex34-09a God walk with us;IF we sin you can forgive
WHEN     Dt32-03a WHEN I call the name of God, give Praise
RATHER   Dt15-08b Dont be miserly; RATHER be charitable
QUESTION Dt29-15a Is being a relative,reason for not being payed?
THAT     Nu20-29c The congregation saw THAT Aaron died
PERHAPS  Ex23-05a PERHAPS youll see a donkey & desert it? No!

By completing this unit the reader will become proficient
in how >KI< is used and will be able to apply these
translations to new verses.

In todays unit we present the grand summary, reviewing
the 2 dozen or so examples we have given.

For those who are interested in the justification for
the right to modify Rashis original language please
see the discussion in http://www.RashiYomi.Com/h9n6.htm

We show how one Rashi explicitly says that >There are
4 meanings to KI< while if we actually count there
are 7 meanings. Furthermore another Rashi explicitly
identifies one of the 4 meanings as having 3 meanings.
This justifies >REINTERPRETING< Rashis statement that
there are 4 meanings to a statement that there are
>4 groups of meanings while in fact there are 7 meanings<
We show that this inference could also be made by
database queries.

This module comes from the following digests in the
Rashi-is-Simple series

For the original source of the grand summary see

http://www.RashiYomi.Com/h9n6.htm (Available Sunday)

For previous discussions on the subject see

For further special cases see

#*#*#*#*#*#*#*#*#*# (C) Dr Hendel, 2001 *#*#*#*#*#*#*#*#*#*#*#*#*

                        -GRAND SUMMARY-

  In the following examples the Hebrew word >KI<
  means >BECAUSE<
======== =================================================
Gn18-15a Sarah denied laughing BECAUSE she was afraid
Gn41-49b He stopped counting BECAUSE there were no numbers
Dt07-07c Not because of your numbers;BECAUSE You are the small*1

*1 The exact text is more or less the following:
   >Dont think the reason that God is giving you Israel is
    because you are the biggest of the nations. Indeed,that
    couldn't be the reason BECAUSE you are the smallest of
    the nations. RATHER, the reason God is giving you
    Israel is because of Gods love of the Patriarchs<

  In the following examples the Hebrew word >KI<
  denotes a >QUESTION<
======== =================================================
Gn27-36a Is his name DOUBLE-CROSS?He DOUBLE-CROSSED me twice*1
Gn29-15a Is being a relative an excuse to work for no pay?

*1 The Hebrew name >JACOB< means >DOUBLE CROSS<. Esauv
   in this verse is complaining about how Jacob stole
   his blessings. He states >He (Jacob) stole the blessings
   I was suppose to get---he DOUBLE-CROSSED me (pun intended)<

  In the following examples the Hebrew word >KI<
  means >RATHER<
======== ================================================
Dt13-10a Dont have mercy; RATHER Kill him *1
Dt11-07a Your children did not see Gods wonders;RATHER you did
Dt07-08a RATHER (God Chose you)because of Love of Patriarchs*2
Dt09-05a RATHER because of their wickedness God gave you Israel
Gn19-02e They responded >No! RATHER we will inn in the streets<
Gn31-16a Our inheritance is not from father;RATHER from God*3
Dt15-08b Dont be miserly; RATHER open your hands to the poor
Gn18-15a & Abraham said,NO, this is false! RATHER you did do it
Dt10-12b Does God ask(nothing)?No! RATHER THAT you fear him

*1 In other capital cases:if eg a murderer was accidentally
   acquited and we find it out we do NOT reverse the acquital
   But in the case of Dt13-10a (the case of someone who
   seduces people to idolatry) we do not have ANY mercy but
   RATHER kill him (that is we do retry him and convict him)

   (See Rambam Courts Chapter 10)

*2 The exact text is more or less the following:
   >Dont think the reason that God is giving you Israel is
    because you are the biggest of the nations. Indeed,that
    couldn't be the reason BECAUSE you are the smallest of
    the nations. RATHER, the reason God is giving you
    Israel is because you of Gods love of the Patriarchs<

*3 Rashi basically connects the various verses as follows
   >Are we then going to inherit anything from our father?
   Are we not like strangers to him? Indeed, he sold us in
   marriage! RATHER if we inherit anything it is what God
   gives us(not what Father gives us because he wont give
   us anything)<

  In the following examples the Hebrew word >KI<
  means >WHEN<  of >IF<*1 *2
======== =================================================
Ex34-09a God walk with us: then IF we sin you can forgive us
Nu05-20a ..and IF you have sinned...
Dt32-03a WHEN I call the name of God give praise *1
Dt32-36a WHEN God judges his nation..then He will say*1
Gn40-14a that IF & WHEN you remember me I'll be saved*3

*1 There are of course many verses where >KI< means
   >WHEN<. But these are 2 main verses where Rashi
   makes a comment.

*2 I feel obligated to mention the important Malbim
   that when a paragraph introduces a whole hypothetical
   situation then
   ---the first >IF< of the paragraph uses the Hebrew >KI<
   ---the remaining >IF< s of the paragraph use the Hebrew >IM<

   For example Lv04 is the chapter on >SIN OFFERINGS<
   We then have the following sequence of sin offerings
   ---Lv04-01:12  >KI<    (if) a    High Priest   sins
   ---Lv04-13:21  >IM<    (if) the  congregation  sins
   ---Lv04-22:26  >ASHER< (if) the  King          sins
   ---Lv04-27:31  >IM<    (if) the  individual    sins
   ---Lv04-32:35  >IM<    (if) the  individual    sins

   This is a peach of a principle which seems to have been
   neglected. More can be said (like the anomalous >ASHER<
   in Lv04-22) but the above will suffice for now.

*3 We follow the interpretation of the Sifsay Chachamim
   commentary on Rashi who interprets Gn40-13:14 as one sentence

   >In another 3 days Pharoh will remember you and restore you
   (from prison) to your former post of personally serving him
   (The restoration from prison will be so complete that) WHEN
   (& if you do me a favor &) you mention me to Pharoh I will
   be saved from Prison<

   The strange construction >WHEN & IF< comes from the two
   words >KI< = >WHEN< and >IM< = >IF< and is similar to our
   English phrase >WHEN & IF<.

  In the following examples the Hebrew word >KI<
  means >THAT<
======== ========================================================
Gn43-07d Did we know THAT he would request Benjamin
Nu14-13b Egypt will hear THAT you took the Jews out to die
Gn31-52a This monument symbolizes THAT I wont double cross you*1
Nu20-29c The Congregation saw THAT Aaron had died*2
Ex23-33a Lest they make you sin: THAT you serve their gods
Dt10-12b Does God ask(nothing)?RATHER THAT (KI IM) you fear him*3
Gn24-19a I will water your camels >UNTIL< they have drunk*4
Gn24-33a I will not eat >UNTIL< I have eaten*4

*1 In this verse it is the Hebrew word >IM< which means >THAT<
   However we follow Rashi in making a LIST of a >GROUP< of
   Hebrew words--->KI<, >IM<----each of which can mean
   >IF< >THAT< >WHEN<  etc.

*2 This is an answer to Dr Sunness question on this Rashi.
   Dr Sunness had asked what this Rashi was saying
   Rashi was simply explaining that >KI< means >THAT<, not
   >BECAUSE<.  Rashi also notes that the Aramaic translation
   of this verse is in error since the verse does not say
   >And the whole congregation saw BECAUSE?!?!? Aaron died<
   (Rashi further elaborates on other suggested translations &
   shows the error in translating them that way)

   Note the terseness by which we analyze this Rashi. This
   is because we have a LIST of all Rashis on this verse
   to back up the meanings we give. Such a list facilitates
   the explanation of any one example.

*3 I think this is the best way to interpret this verse, based
   on Rashi:
                >What does God ask of you?<
   This is interpreted rhetorically--does God ask nothing?
   The verse then continues
                >Rather (God asks) that you fear him<

   This is consistent with the Talmudic statement that
   >God does everything for man except for enabling man to fear
   Him which man must do himself<

*4 These verses appear as anomalies in this list. There are
   two difficulties with its inclusion. First of all the Hebrew
   work >IM< is used, not the Hebrew word >KI<. But we have
   already explained that we follow Rashi in the construction
   of this LIST and present >GROUPS< of words---KI, IM---each
   of which can mean >IF<, >WHEN< etc

   A more serious problem is including a verse with the
   word >UNTIL< in a LIST of verses with  >THATUNTIL<

   * I travelled northward UNTIL New York
   * I travelled UNTIL I ran out of Gas
   * I travelled UNTIL the exhaustion of the Gas.

   In English all 3 of these sentences use the word >UNTIL<

   In Hebrew the first and last sentence would use the Hebrew
   word >AD< which means >UNTIL<

   However the second sentence would include the abstract pronoun
   >THAT< in order to introduce the subordinate sentence. Thus
   the Hebrew translation of the 2nd sentence above would read

   * I travelled UNTIL THAT I ran out of Gas.

   This sounds strange to an English speaking person but is
   perfectly normal in Hebrew. Thus the rule is
   * Use UNTIL with a single sentence or with an infinitive
   * Use UNTIL THAT with a subordinate sentence. This rule
   is justified by the LIST in the footnotes
   which also contains statistics

  In the following examples the Hebrew word >KI<
  means >PERHAPS<  or >LEST<

======== =======================================================
Ex23-05a PERHAPS you'll see your friends donkey
         overburdened & desert him? No! Help him*1
Ex20-22c When you make stone altars dont use hewn stones
         LEST you use STEEL/IRON CUTTERS*2
Dt20-19c (In war)When you seige a city dont cut trees
         LEST you treat the soldiers like a group of
         trees (and sacrifice them) to achieve entry*3
Gn50-19a Perhaps, I, Joseph am in the place of God?*4

*1 Ex23-05a

   I should note Rashis 2nd interpretation which is as follows
   IF you see your friends donkey overburdened....
   -then you wont help him
   -then you should held him

   As Rashi says >Sometimes you help your friend and sometimes
   (eg if you are elderly and dont usually lift such bundles)
   you have the right to desert him<

   However the above translation is clearly twisted. These
   laws cited by Rashi are learned from the wording
   >HELP HELP WITH HIM<. Thus from the phrases >WITH HIM< we
   infer that you only help when he works WITH YOU and you
   are not obligated if eg he is elderly. Since this is not
   Rashis main focus we will not further explain it here
   except to say that we have several Rashis on the difference
   between >WITH HIM< and >OF HIM<. See the following URLS

   In summary the way we have interpreted Rashi is the simple
   meaning of the text and the other laws that Rashi cites are
   learned from other parts of the verse

   Finally note that the meaning >PERHAPS< is similar to
   the usage of >KI< to make a >QUESTION<

*2 Ex20-22c
   Rashi also notes MORAL IMPLICATIONS
   The Torah had pity on these stones which only enable
   peace--the Torah had pity on them by prohibiting to use
   >STEEL< cutting instruments to hew the stones since >STEEL<
   is a metal of destruction (Actually the Torah simply
   prohibited swords but Rashi seems to take that as any IRON

   We can now conclude that if the Torah had
   pity on stones which enable sacrifices which bring peace
   between people (eg the sacrifice that allows a woman to
   reunite with her husband after childbirth), and prohibited
   using destructive instruments on these stones, how much
   more so will the Torah have pity on actual people who bring

*3 There are many diverse interpretations on this verse brought
   by the Malbim, Ibn Ezra etc.  However the above interpretation
   brought by us is simplest and consistent with the Sifray.

   The basic focus is that in war actions people lose their
   individuality. In English we would say they become a HERD
   (of ANIMALS) while in Hebrew we say they become a FOREST

   The general must be aware not to sacrifice one soldier for
   the benefit of the group. We symbolically affirm this value
   by not destroying ANY (physical) trees thus affirming that
   we will not sacrifice any individual soldiers.

*4 Added Dec 25,2001. The question is rhetorical. That is
   Joseph said to his brothers who were concerned that he
   would retaliate and kill him for the kidnapping:
   Joseph then adds another verse
   You plotted evil-to murder me-but God turned your
   plots to Good since I(Joseph) am now saving an entire

   Rashi further explains Josephs 2nd arguments:
   Even if I wanted to harm you, God would overturn 
   my harm and make it good

The 3 usages of >AD< = >UNTIL<. Footnotes make comments about
statistical frequency and usage.
======= =====================               =============   ====
Gn06-07 Ill destroy from Man UNTIL Animal   AD              *1
Gn08-05 water dwindled UNTIL the 10th       AD              *1
Gn11-31 travelled UNTIL Charan              AD              *1
Gn08-07 waters waved UNTIL their DRYING     AD              *1
Lv22-04 UNTIL (THAT) he purifies himself    AD ASHER        *2
Gn27-44 UNTIL (THAT) the anger assuages     AD ASHER        *2
Gn28-15 UNTIL (THAT) I do what I promised   AD ASHER        *2
Gn29-08 we cant UNTIL (THAT) we gather      AD ASHER        *2
Gn33-14 UNTIL (THAT) I come to Sayirah      AD ASHER        *2
Gn24-19 UNTIL (IF) they finish drinking     AD IM           *3
Gn24-33 until (IF) I speak                  AD IM           *3
Is30-17 until (IF) they are destroyed       AD IM           *3
Rut2-21 until (IF) they finish the harvest  AD IM           *3

*1 >AD< occurs 1000 times in the Bible.
   It is used in
   --simple phrases (Eg MAN UNTIL ANIMAL)
   --or in phrases with infinitives(eg until the DRYING)

*2 >AD ASHER< occurs about 50 times
   >AD ASHER< vs >AD< is used:
   --when an entire subordinate sentence is present
   It sounds strange because the construction >UNTIL THAT<
   is not used in English

*3 >AD IM< occurs only 4 times in the Bible
   >AD IM< like >AD ASHER< means >UNTIL THAT< and is used
   --when an entire subordinate sentence is present
   Rashi therefore notes that the idea of equating
   >AD IM< and >AD ASHER< follows from identifying
   >IM< and >ASHER<

   Rashi notes that >AD IM< = >UNTIL THAT< = >AD ASHER< in
   his commentary on Both the Bible and prophets.

   We conjecture that >AD IM< vs >AD ASHER< seems to have
   a connotation of >UNTIL, PLEASE GOD IF< eg

   >I will not eat >UNTIL, Please God IF< I have spoken<

   However it is difficult to present further proof (with
   only 4 examples). There are methods for justifying this
   but it would take us too far afield.

#*#*#*#*#*#*#*#*#*# (C) Dr Hendel, 2001 *#*#*#*#*#*#*#*#*#*#*#*#*