Why are words REPEATED REPEATED:#14 of 14
#     10 YEAR Ayelet DAILY-RASHI-YOMI CYCLE               #
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This module deals with Rashis which comment on verses with
>REPEATED WORDS<. There are 4 basic techniques for interpreting

The basic idea for interpreting >REPEATED WORDS<
was succinctly formulated by the MALBIM

When a word is >REPEATED< unnecessarily then the
sentence with that word refers to >NON-STANDARD NUANCES<
The examples will illustrate how this is implemented

Todays summary is copied verbatim from the longer
Rashi-is-Simple series. You can find the whole posting

http://www.RashiYomi.Com/gn47-02a.htm   (Will be up Sunday)

#*#*#*#*#*#*#*#*#*# (C) Dr Hendel, 2001 *#*#*#*#*#*#*#*#*#*#*#*#*
VERSE: Gn47-02a

RASHIS COVERED: Gn47-02a Nu04-04a          Ex31-15a Lv13-49a
                Lv13-49b Gn28-11b Gn37-15a Gn22-11a Gn46-02a
                Nu08-19a Ex01-01a Gn45-03a Nu17-28a Nu05-12a
                Ex15-01b Gn08-21b Gn26-13a Dt33-18a Gn39-11b
                Gn22-17a Gn22-17b Gn26-28a Gn32-13a Dt13-16a
                Ex12-09c Dt15-08b Gn17-13a Dt16-20a Ex31-15b

The following module presents the 3 dozen or so Rashis dealing
with verses that >REPEAT< words. For example instead of saying
>it is HOLY< the verse might say >it is a HOLY OF HOLIES<; or
instead of saying >If a PERSON does such and such< the verse
might says >If a PERSON PERSON does such and such<

There are 4 primary methods of dealing with >REPEATED WORDS<

EXAMPLE: Nu04-04a refers to the >HOLY OF HOLIES< which is
the holiest and most inaccessible part of the temple (you
could only enter it once a year). (An alternate reading
of Rashi refers this to the Temple Utensils which are the
holiest objects in Judaism)

EXAMPLE: Gn22-11a >God said ABRAHAM ABRAHAM< or Song-of-Songs-4-1
>Wow you are BEAUTIFUL Wow you are BEAUTIFUL baby<. You obviously
use Repetition with people you like; by contrast you are formal
and terse with people you dont care for (This example on
Repetition comes from my TRADITION article,>PSHAT & DERASH<,Win80

NOTE: Professor Horowitz refers to this as a >conversation
opener<. I would further add that it is a >conversation opener
with someone you like<

EXAMPLE: Nu17-28a >Anyone who comes NEAR NEAR to the temple will
be cut off<. The emphasis in the repeated >NEAR NEAR< indicates
that a person is punished not only for brazenly coming near but
even eg if they came near because it was crowded near the temple
and the person was doing it only for convenience.

NOTE: Both method 3 and method 1 indicate >EMPHASIS<. However
the >EMPHASIS< in method 1 is >RESTRICTIVE<(it restricts the
meaning to the CHOICEST and BEST) while the emphasis
in >method 3< is >BROADENING<(It includes more cases). Method
1 is usually accompanied by other words of emphasis such as
>THE< or >OF< (the holy OF holies) and hence is >RESTRICTIVE<
Pure >REPETITION< however is >BROADENING< (This was Malbims
principle on Repetition presented in his collection of rules
called the Morning Star)

EXAMPLE: In Gn22-17b God promises to >MULTIPLY MULTIPLY you<
Rashi explains that Abraham would MULTIPLY and have many children
and similarly Abrahams descendants would ALSO have many children.

We do deal with >REPEATED WORDS/PHRASES<. We do not
deal (here) with the interesting topic of >REPEATED VERSES<
The methods of >REPEATED VERSES< may be found in our
>DOUBLE PARSHAS< rule(See the BY-RULE pulldown on the Rashi
website at http://www.RashiYomi.Com/by-verse.htm) Finally
we deal with words that are perceived as >REPEATED< because
pronouns were not used the 2nd time (Examples are indicated

                        -GRAND SUMMARY-

     >REPETITION< can indicate the >CHOICEST< and >BEST<
     This is particularly true if the >REPETITION< has
     an indicator of emphasis such as >of< or >the<
     (Original posting at http://www.RashiYomi.Com/h6n11.htm)

======== =============================== =======================
Nu04-04a The HOLY of HOLIES              Holiest part of temple
Ex31-15a A SABBATH of SABBATHS*1         Even cooking prohibited
Lv13-49a Y-R-K-R-K (GreenReen)           The GREENEST of GREENS*2
Lv13-49b A-D-M-D-M (Reded)               The REDEST of REDS*2
Gn28-11a He prayed by THE PLACE..PLACE*3 >THE PLACE<=the Temple
Gn37-15a And a MAN found him..THE MAN.*4 >THE MAN<=AProphet/Angel

*1 Ex31-15b further points out that all holidays which are
   referred to as >SABBATH of SABBATH< (Ex31-15, Lv23-32)
   have prohibitions of both WORK and EATING. By contrast
   all holidays which are only called >SABBATH< (Lv23-23
   and Lv23-39) only have a prohibition of Work but not
   a prohibition of COOKING. This is fully discussed at

*2 This is fully discussed in http://www.RashiYomi.Com/h1n23.htm
   Ibn Ezra seems to disagree and state that GReenReen means a
   light green (which would contradict this list). But as I
   show in that posting, Ibn Ezra retracted what he said in his
   commentary on Ps45-03. In fact Ibn Ezra simply points out
   that he was testing the consistency of this rule against all
   doubled roots. To make a long story short we reviewed all
   roots & found possible problems with only 2 verses, Ps38-11
   and Songs6-1. However we can properly translate these verses
   Ps38-11 would be translated as >My heart FLUTTERS (intense
   back and forth motion)<; Similarly Songs6-1 would be
   translated as >Dont avoid me simply because I am very
   SUNBURNED (an intense form of DAWN-COLOR)<

* {LIST}
LIST of root doublings from Ibn Ezra Ps 45-3
                        ARE DOUBLED                ROOT LETTERS
                                                   ARE DOUBLED
=====   =============   =========================  ============
SChR    Beginning Dawn  Ending Dawn (reddish)*a    2,3
SChR    Motion about    Total revolving            2,3
SGH     Grow            Wild intense growth        1,2
YFH     Pretty          Very Pretty                1,2

*a The Ibn Ezra takes SChR = Black and SChRChReTH =
TAN, a weakened black. Note that we take that ENDING DAWN
is a more intense form of BEGINNING DAWN. The person whose
face is ENDING DAWN is Sunburned.

FURTHER LIST of root doublings and a demonstration that
the doubling refers to >INTENSITY<
                      ARE DOUBLED                  ROOT LETTERS
==== ======  ======== =========================    ============
TLL  Lump    Song5-11 Braided hair (many lumps!)   1,2
CDD  Sparks  Is54-12  Sparkling stone (like a sun) 1,2
COL  Measure Gn16-12  Subsidize, Support           1,3
CRH  Dig     2S6-14   Dance*a                      1,2
TzNH Cold    Ex16-33  Thermos (Preserves cold)*b

*a Note that it is the MOTIONS of Dancing that are INTENSE forms
of the MOTIONS of digging. Digging and Dancing of course have
nothing to do with each other. One of the challenging things in
research on meaning is how a whole assortment of principles may
coalesce on a single word.

*b See our Rashi is Simple archives on v2-16-33: A thermos
is a doubly insulated can that preserves cold (hence the doubling
of TzN). In light of the principle we mention here we would say
that TzNH just means cold while TzNTzNeTH or thermos means

*3 I have combined Radack and Rashi to make this readable.
   Radack cites 4 verses where >PLACE< can refer to >GOD<
   corresponding to the attribute of >OMNIPRESENCE<. However
   this would sound better if we interpret >PLACE< to mean
   the >PLACE OF GOD<. eg Ez03-12 would be translated as
   >Blessed be God from HIS PLACE OF HOLINESS< (The 4
   verses where >PLACE< means >PLACE OF HOLINESS< are Gn28-11,
   Ez03-12, Dt33-27, Es04-14) The key point here is to
   emphasize both the >REPETITION< and the word >THE place<

*4 Again the emphasis is on both the >REPETITION< and the word
   >THE<. Thus the verse would be translated as >And a MAN
   found Joseph and he was wandering in the field and THE
   MAN (ie a Prophet or Angel) asked him WHAT DO YOU SEEK<
   (NOTE: The way we interpret this verse it would simply
   be another dream like the previous 2 dreams of Joseph)

     (Originally posted at http://www.RashiYomi.Com/h1n6.htm)

======== ================================ =======================
Songs4-1 You are BEAUTIFUL BEAUTIFUL*5    He Liked Her
Gn22-11a The Angel called ABRAHAM ABRAHAM Abraham is DEAR to God
Gn46-02a God said Jacob Jacob             Jacob is DEAR to God
Nu08-19a Tell the JEWS..JEWS..JEWS..JEWS. Jews are DEAR to God
Ex01-01a Repetition of Tribal Genealogy*6 Tribes are DEAR to God
Gn45-04a Joseph told BROTHERS..BROTHERS*5 Joe close to brothers

*5 See http://www.RashiYomi.Com/h1n6.htm for original posting
   See my article >PSHAT & DRASH<
   Winter 1980, TRADITION where I develop the Songs4-1 example
   As I note in the article the major emphasis is that he likes
   her. The Songs Rabbah however gives 10 specific instances
   of WHY someone might be liked (eg God loves the Jews because
   they do commandments in both public and private).

   Similarly the REPEATED >BROTHERS< in Gn45-03a simply denotes
   that Joseph still liked his brothers (Despite what they did
   to him). Rashi simply picks one example of this closeness:
   Joseph still kept his religion (Rashis actual language is
   that >Joseph showed them he was circumcised< but we have
   interpreted this symbolically).

*6 Ex01-01:07 REPEATS the genealogies of the tribes given in
   Gn46-08:27.  This >REPETITION< denotes the >ENDEARMENT<
   of the tribes to God. (Notice that this repetition is
   NOT a conversation opener (like the other examples) but
   still denotes endearment).

Equivalantly it can indicate >NON STANDARD MEANINGS< of an object
(See http://www.RashiYomi.Com/h2n20.htm which also brings
 numerous non-Rashi references from Baba Metzia 31)

======== ================================ =======================

Nu17-28a All who come NEAR NEAR ...       Even if it was crowded
Nu05-12a A MAN MAN who suspects his wife  Even a paranoic man*6
Ex15-01b God is GREAT GREAT in war*7      Overthrows HORSE& RIDER
Gn08-21b God will not destroy not destroy No matter how evil*8
Gn26-13a & Isaac >GREW GREW<              Even his manure*9
Dt33-18a DAN..DAN ZVULUN..ZVULUN          Even if weaklings*10
Gn39-11b he left his GARMENT GARMENT      Garment of sin*11

*6 In other words >MAN MAN< denotes >ANY MAN< even someone
   very paranoic (I might think that God wouldnt allow his
   Great Name to be erased for a Paranoic man--therefore
   we are told otherwise). The Numbers-Rabbah Midrash gives
   several explanations--Rashi simply cites from the first in
   the list(and thereby encourages people to learn the
   rest). We have selected the interpretation closest to the
   paradigm of the list.

   For an extensive but technical discussion see

*7 Rashis language is >Ordinary military greatness consists
   of overpowering the RIDER not the HORSE. But God throws
   BOTH HORSE and RIDER in the sea--hence we have a non-
   standard example of GREATNESS which is indicated by

*8 The implication is that God will never destroy the
   world no matter how evil man becomes. (Rashis language
   is that >God took an oath not to destroy the world<
   But all that Rashi meant was the emphasis that God
   would not destroy the world in any circumstances)

*9 >GROWTH< is usually associated with assets and workers
   Rashi points out here that Isaac >GREW IN ALL RESPECTS<
   >EVEN< his manure was coveted.

*10 Rashi here cites a fundamental controversy in approach
   to REPETITION. Genesis Rabbah 95:04 and Baba Kama 92a
   both deal with the problem that of the 12 tribes
   blessed by Moses only 5 of them have their names
   repeated in the blessing (in Dt33). Thus eg it says
   >And to DAN Moses said/blessed: May DAN be like a lion<
   Thus this blessing REPEATS the word DAN while other
   blessings use pronouns when re-refering to the tribes.

   Genesis Rabbah suggests that these 5 people were the
   >STRONGEST< of the tribes (So REPETITION denotes
   the CHOICEST). By contrast, Baba Kamma suggests that
   these 5 were the >WEAKEST< (So REPETITION denotes
   that they are tribes in >ANY< circumstances EVEN
   though they are not as strong as the other tribes).

   After reviewing this controversy in Gn47-02a Rashi
   decides in Dt33-18a in favor of the TALMUD.

   Using the above LISTS we can easily understand why.

   >REPETITION< can only denote >CHOICEST< if there is
   some other EMPHASIS INDICATOR like >THE< or >OF<
   This is discussed in METHOD 1 above. By contrast
   METHOD 3 shows that ordinary REPETITION broadens
   the meaning of a word to include non standard
   circumstances. Hence the implication would be
   >You are my tribe EVEN if you are a weakling and
   are not what I expect<.

*11 First: The word >garment< is not repeated (>Garment Garment<)
    Rather the word is used twice in the verses without using
    a pronoun (ie it says >And she grabbed him by his GARMENT
    and he left his GARMENT in her hand<). REPETITION that
    comes from an omitted pronoun is also REPETITION.

    Next: The simplest explanation would be that >GARMENT<
    would refer to >GARMENT< in the sense of the Monica
    Lewinsky >GARMENT<---in other words a >GARMENT< with
    non-standard items which indicate sin (Recall that
    Potipheras wife had been making advances on Joseph
    daily; Joseph was only 17; he was all alone and without
    friends; the rest is clear...). In summary the simplest
    interpretation is that >Garment< refers to a >non standard
    meaning of garment< denoting sin (A similar use of
    garment occurs in Dt22-17 >and the man will accuse his
    newly married wife of having been unfaithful and they
    will spread the GARMENT before the city officials(to
    prove her innocence)<

 -It can indicate more DOERS of an activity
 -It can indicate more RECEIVERS of an activity
 -It can indicate more PLACES/TIMES where an activity takes place

======== ================================ =======================
Gn22-17a I will >BLESS BLESS< you*12      Bless you & descendants
Gn22-17b I will >MULTIPLY MULTIPLY< you   Multiply you & children
Gn26-28a We have >SEEN SEEN< God with you God with you & parents
Gn32-13a I will be >GOOD GOOD< to you*12  Good to you & parents
Dt13-16a >HIT HIT< this city by sword*13  HIT even by fire
Ex12-09c >COOK COOK< it in water*14       COOK even in any liquid
Dt15-08b >GIVE GIVE< to the slave         Even LOAN*15
Gn17-13a >CIRCUMCISE CIRCUMCISE<          Even not on 8th day*16
Dt16-20a >JUSTICE JUSTICE< pursue*17      Even if faulty verdict

*12 In this example >TO WHOM< the activity is done is
    enlarged. The activity is done to the person & relations
    In the 1st 4 examples the sentence is taken to refer not
    only to the person spoken to but >ALSO< to his
    children or parents (& hence the repetition)

*13 In this example, >HOW< you implement the activity
    is enlarged. You can do it by sword or by fire.
    You >should< initially hit by >sword<; but if you cant
    (eg there are no swords) then hit it in >ANY< way (eg
    burn the city). Hence the REPEATED WORD >HIT HIT<

*14 In this example >HOW< you implement the activity
    is enlarged. You can do it by water or liquid.
    You >should< initially cook by water; but if you cant
    (eg a water shortage) then cook it >ANY< way possible
    (eg cook it in liquid). Hence the REPEATED WORD >COOK<

*15 If this example >HOW< you do the activity is enlarged.
    You can do it by charity or by loan.
    eg If the slave is proud and doesnt want to take
    charity then >GIVE< him by loaning(hence the double

*16 In this example >WHEN< you do the activity is enlarged.
    Sometimes you circumcise on the 8th day & sometimes on
    other days. The Talmud Sabbath 135b and Rambam
    Circumcision 1:5 gives several examples one of which is
    the following: >If you purchased a slave for her
    children ...then the children are circumcised on
    the day that they are born<(Technically speaking it
    may be more desirable to derive this law from a
    comparison of Gn17-12 and Gn17-13 which function as
    >REPEATED VERSES< (not repeated words). But this will
    suffice for now).

*17 In this example >TO WHOM< you do the activity is enlarged
    You can do justice to either an innocent or guilty person
    Eg If the person really was >guilty< but he was accidentally
    acquitted and then you found out then you should still
    pursue the >JUST< verdict even though he doesnt deserve it
    (Note that this verse could equally have been placed in
    METHOD 3). Note that Rashi actually says >JUSTICE JUSTICE:
    Give him a nice court<. But we have cited the law in Rambam
    Courts Chapter 11-1 which is more focused and specfic and
    is consistent with the other Rashis.

#*#*#*#*#*#*#*#*#*# (C) Dr Hendel, 2001 *#*#*#*#*#*#*#*#*#*#*#*#*