APPENDIX: THE 30 Rashi Methods
RuJHe's Short Guide to Rashi

(C) July 2006, RashiYomi Incorporated
This lesson is part of the Rashi Short Guide, the HTML Book version, (C) July 2006, RashiYomi Incorporated. The entire HTML-Book is located on the World Wide Web, at" and is a free download.

The material in this appendix is suitable for manipulation on spreadsheets. It is ideal for review. This appendix is (C) July 2006, RashiYomi Incorporated as part of this book.

Lesson Example Verse Method Sub Method Brief Explanation of Method Brief summary of Rashi The contribution or Novelty of Rashi
1 2.1a Dt26-05d OTHER VERSES further details Rashi adds further details to the meaning of a given verse by citing an OTHER VERSE Dt26-05 states that the Jews came down to Egypt with a TINY number of people. Gn46-27 further clarifies this by explaining that the number of people going down to Egypt were 70 Rashi clarified the meaning of the term TINY by citing an OTHER VERSE which provided numerical information
1 3.1a Ex16-20b GRAMMAR noun-verb transforms Rashi coins a verb form of a noun--for example to DUST, to FLOWER or to HAMMER the manna WORMED worms Rashi clarifies that the VERB FORM is derived from the NOUN form (TO WORM means that WORMS formed)
1 4.1 Gn50-15c WORD MEANINGS special connective words Rashi explains and lists all usages of special connective words like AND, OR, IF, WHEN, BECAUSE, ALSO, THAT After their father died the brothers were afriad: PERHAPS Joseph will hate us... Rashi clarifies that the Hebrew connective word LAMED VAV can mean a) if b) if only it were so and c) perhaps
1 5.1 Gn48-11d ALIGNMENT word meanings Rashi identifies the meanings of words by using parallel terms in ALIGNED pairs of verses He washes, CLOTHING in WINE, and SAMECH-VAV-TAUV in GRAPE BLOOD Rashi identifies the ALIGNED terms: WINE=GRAPE BLOOD and SAMECH-VAV-TAUV=GARMENT. Rashi translates SAMECH-VAV-TAUV as GARMENT
2 6.2a Lv02-05a WORD MEANINGS synonyms Rashi explains the nuances and differences between two SYNONYMS with almost identical meanings if you offer a Minchah offering on a FRYING PAN Rashi identifies FRYING PAN and POT as two cooking utensils and explains the difference that one is FLAT and one is DEEP
2 7.2a Ex01-11b STYLE general-detail Rashi identifies a paragraph unit as consisting of a GENERAL THEME followed by DETAILS. Rashi interprets the paragraph unit as focusing only on the DETAILS but not on other aspects of the GENERAL THEME. the tax-masters AFFLICTED THEM BY making them BUILD CITIES Rashi explains that although the concepts of TAX and AFFLICTION are GENERAL the Egyptians accomplished this affliction thru making the Jews BUILD CITIES
2 8.2a Ex01-16c CONTRADICTION 2 aspects Rashi resolves 2 contradictory verses by viewing them as describing 2 different aspects of the same item Ex01-12 says that the Egyptians EMOTIONALLY hated the ENTIRE Jewish people; Ex01-16 states that Pharoh POLITICALLY hated the MALES because he was suspicious of a savior who could arise from them Rashi resolves the contradiction (Hatred of ALL PEOPLE vs Hatred of MALES) by distinguishing two aspects of the Jews: THE NATION vs the MALES and by distinguishing two aspects of HATRED: EMOTIONAL vs POLITICAL
2 9.2a Ex18-10a FORMAT bullets Rashi interprets a repeating keyword as creating a BULLET like effect. Rashi then interprets the BULLET like effect to indicate contrastive emphasis on a group of items being discussed. God saved the Jews FROM PHAROH, a harsh LEADER, and FROM EGYPT, a harsh Nation. Rashi interprets the repeating keyword FROM as indicating BULLETS. Both PHAROH and EGYPT are bulleted creating a contrastive emphasis: Both the LEADER and NATION
3 10.3a Nu09-22a FORMAT climax Rashi perceives a LIST of paragraph or sentence items as listed in CLIMACTIC order. This CLIMACTIC order allows inferences of nuances. The Prophecy cloud lasts a a) night, b) day-night, c) 2 days, d) a month or e) DAYS=A YEAR Rashi infers from the CLIMACTIC LISTING ORDER--eve, day-night, 2 days, month, DAYS that DAYS means A YEAR
4 11.4a Lv02-11a WORD MEANINGS metonomy (FFF) An item is named by its FORM (e.g. PENTAGON), FUNCTION (e.g. United Nations),FEEL (e.g. HARDSHIP), by something closely RELATED (e.g. WEAPONS are called ARMS), or by an EXEMPLARY MEMBER (e.g. HONEY means ANYTHING SWEET) HONEY means any SWEET FRUIT JUICE Rashi names the WHOLE GROUP of SWEET ITEMS by an EXEMPLARY member, HONEY
4 12.4a Ex10-08b GRAMMAR root conjugations Rashi reviews the technical rules of conjugation roots and their meanings (Today most of this material can be found in standard grammar textbooks) And Moses and Aaron WERE RETURNED to Pharoh Rashi identifies the CONJUGATION as the PASSIVE CAUSATIVE--that is someone CAUSED Moses and Aaron to return
4 13.4 Ex10-11a SPREADSHEETS spreadsheets Rashi clarifies the consequences and definitions of a complex set of computations, associations or diagrams. Today such associations are normally clarified with a SPREADSHEET Pharoh allowed the WARRIORS (seniors and lads) to go but prohibited the INFANTS (boys and girls) to go Moses asked that SENIORS,LADS,BOYS,GIRLS be allowed to Go. Pharoh said YES to WARRIORS and NO to INFANTS. Rashi uses a SPREADSHEET to line up SENIORS,LADS,BOYS,GIRLS with WARRIORS,INFANTS
4 14.4 Ex04-14a DATABASE patterns Rashi makes a broad DATABASE query that reviews and uncovers patterns over the entire Bible or large parts of it Whenever the Bible records a loss of God's temper we also find a punishment---since God lost His Temper on Moses for requesting not to be the leader of the Jewish people, therefore, he was punished and was not allowed to become Priest Rashi is not simply commenting on a word phrase (such as Aaron the LEVITE). Rather Rashi's primary contribution is to make a broad DATABASE analysis of all verses where GOD LOST HIS TEMPER. In each case we find a PUNISHMENT nearby.
5 15.5a Ex14-27a WORD MEANINGS idioms Rashi explains the meaning of IDIOMATIC phrases -- that is, a group of word which together has a meaning that is distinct from the sum of the meanings of its component words Rashi explains that the phrase TURN OF MORNING means DAWN Rashi identifies the IDIOMATIC meaning of a group of words
5 16.5a Nu14-01a ALIGNMENT 2 nuances Rashi ALIGNS verses or verse clauses with almost identical wording. The minor differences in the ALIGNMENT implies nuances. The Biblical use of ALIGNMENT is similar to the modern use of FOOTNOTES to indicate extra nuances to a text. The verse says: CONGREGATION moaned, NATION cried. Rashi interprest: NATION=people, CONGREGATION = LEADERS Rashi identifies the ALIGNED nature of the ALMOST identical verse clauses. From the minor differences CONGREGATION vs NATION Rashi infers that two groups are spoken about: The actual NATION and the CONGREGATION =the LEADERSHIP
6 17.6 Ex18-23a STYLE general-detail-general Rashi sees a Biblical paragraph unit as consisting of a PARAGRAPH THEME sentence accompanied by DETAILS developing the PARAGRAPH THEME. Consequently the DETAILS are generalized since they are seen as examplifying the GENERAL THEME. Ex18-19:23 has an ABA form and states (A) Seek Gods approval (B) appoint a hierarchy of Judges (A) If God approves it will be well with you. Hence the Rashi comment: Jethro's advised Moses to seek Gods approval of a Judge Hierarchy Rashi identifies the GENERAL (God be with you) DETAIL (create a hierarchy of Judges) GENERAL (If God approves it will be Good) structure of Ex18-19:23. This GENERAL-DETAIL-GENERAL structure implies that Hierarchy needed Gods approval
6 18.6a Ex20-22d SYMBOLISM item Rashi symbolically interprets individual items or simple procedures. Rashi accomplishes this symbolic interpretation by studying the FORM, FUNCTION and LINGUISTIC DESCRIPTION of the item. Do not use CUTTING TOOLS whose function is DESTRUCTIVE to make the ALTAR whose function is to bring PEACE and ATONEMENT between MAN and MAN or between MAN and GOD. Rashi makes explicit the symbolic nature of CUTTING TOOLS and the ALTAR. Rashi identifies SYMBOLIC MEANING using the FUNCTION of the ITEM. Rashi is justified in using a SYMBOLIC approach because the Biblical text itself does so.
6 19.6 Gn48-11d WORD MEANINGS root Rashi infers the meaning of a word from the meaning of its underlying Biblical root. He washes his GARMENTS in WINE and his (wife's) LINGEREE in the BLOOD OF GRAPES The meaning of the root SAMECH VAV TAUV is SEDUCE. When we combine the root meaning, SEDUCE, with the general meaning of the word, GARMENT, we arrive at the concept of NIGHTGOWN or LINGEREE.
6 20.6 Ex04-09b FORMAT underline/bold Rashi treats a REPEATED Biblical word the same way a MODERN reader would treat an UNDERLINE or BOLD. The BOLD or UNDERLINE or REPEATED word indicates EMPHASIS. God told Moses (a) take WATER from Nile, (b) Spill WATER in hand on ground (c) it becomes blood. [Rashi: The WATER remained WATER in Moses hand and only turned to blood when it hit the ground] Rashi identifies the REPEATING WORD WATER. This repeated word is like an UNDERLINED word in a modern text--the underline creates emphasis--the WATER was still WATER in Moses hand and it did not turn to blood till it hit the ground.
NotDone 21.7 Ex25-31a OTHER VERSES word meanings Rashi takes a term whose intuitive general meaning is known and defines it further through an OTHER VERSE which provides further details. The phrase HARD PRODUCTION occurs in several verses (e.g. Nu10-02). However Ex25-31 defines HARD PRODUCTION as SCULPTORED from one piece vs SOLDERED from several pieces. Rashi reviews all verses using a Biblical word and identifies the verse that precisely defines its meaning
NotDone 22.7 Gn24-29a GRAMMAR sentence Rashi presents grammatical rules that affect whole sentences vs. individual words.One such rule are the CONNECTING rules. There are 3 methods to CONNECT sentences: CAUSE, CONTRAST, UNIFYING THEME. Gn24-29 states a) Laban saw the bracelets and b) Laban Ran to Eliezer who gave them. [Rashi states: He ran because he wanted more gifts Here Rashi connects sentence (a) as the CAUSE of sentence (b)] Rashi identifies the two sentences (SAW BRACELETS and RAN TO GIVER) and CONNECTS the 2 sentences as CAUSE EFFECT (He saw the bracelets and this caused him to run because he wanted more)
NotDone 23.7 Ex20-03a ALIGNMENT 2 cases Rashi ALIGNS two clauses with almost identical phrases and shows that they deal with two cases Ex20-03 states DONT MAKE idols, DONT POSSESS other gods. [Rashi comments: These are two prohibitions: A prohibition of MANUFACTURE even if you sell it and don't keep it and a prohibition of POSSESSION even if someone else made it] Rashi identifies and ALIGNS the two verse clauses and shows they differ in that one prohibits DON'T PRODUCE while the other prohibits DON'T POSSESS thereby indicating two prohibitions.
NotDone 24.7 Nu08-24b CONTRADICTION 2 stages Rashi resolves 2 contradictory verses by seeing them as two stages of one process. Nu08-24 states that Levites start their TEMPLE EDUCATION at 25 while Nu04-03 states that LEVITES start their TEMPLE SERVICE at 30 Rashi identifies a CONTRADICTION in two verses (Levites start at 25 vs 30) Rashi resolves the contradiction by seeing the two verses as describing two stages of one process (EDUCATION, SERVICE)
NotDone 25.7 Ex21-06d CONTRADICTION broad-literal Rashi resolves 2 contradictory verses by using BROAD-LITERAL intepretation of terms in these verses. Ex21-06 states: a slave who refused freedom is enslaved FOREVER. This contradicts Lv25-10: all slaves GO FREE in the JUBILEE year. Rashi INTERPRETS the word FOREVER broadly vs literally--FOREVER means FOR A LONG TIME Rashi identifies the two contradictory verses. Rashi resolves the contradiction by interpreting FOREVER broadly to mean A LONG TIME. Hence a slave can go free in JUBILEE and this does not contradict being enslaved A LONG TIME
NotDone 26.7 Dt25-04a STYLE broad Rashi GENERALIZES a verse. Alternately he sees the verse as only indicating an example of a more general obligation. Dt25-04 prohibits muzzling an OX while threshing. Rashi generalizes this: You can't muzzle ANY ANIMAL while it is doing its work. Rashi identifies the verse content as indicating only an example and generalizes the prohibition from OXEN to all ANIMALS.
NotDone 27.7 Nu15-05a FORMAT paragraphs Rashi identifies a collection of Biblical verses as forming a STRUCTURED PARAGRAPH. The PARAGRAPH STRUCTURE implies that specific TOPICS are being discussed in certain parts of the paragraph Rashi identifiesNu15-01:10 as a paragraph dealing with the libations for a) LAMBS (Nu15-04:05), b) RAMS (Nu15-06:07), and c) OXEN (Nu15-08:09) Rashi identifies the paragraph structure. Each subpart of the paragraph deals with a distinct animal and describes its libations.
NotDone 28.7 Ex28-37a SPREADSHEET diagrams Rashi verbally describes a complicated picture or diagram. Rashi describes how the Priest mask was fastened to the head: One set of threads went AROUND the head from ear to ear; another set of threads went OVER the head. Thus the mask and its threads resembled the outline of a HELMET Rashi verbally describes a complex diagram or picture.
NotDone 29.7 Nu15-36a SPREADSHEET consequences Rashi takes a verse whose meaning is understood and adds CONSEQUENCES or indicates PREREQUISITES The verse says: The criminal was TAKEN OUTSIDE THE CAMP to be executed.[Rashi concludes: The execution chamber was distant from the courthouse (The extra distance allowed time for last minute defenses should they arise)] Rashi gives a CONSEQUENCE of the verse--if the executed was TAKEN OUT then the execution chamber had to be DISTANT from the court.
NotDone 30.7 Nu07-19c SYMBOLISM chapter Rashi interprets an entire Biblical Chapter or Procedure as symbolic --- this involves integrating the symbolic meaning of several items in the chapter. Rashi interprets the gifts of the princes at the consecration of the Temple as symbolically describing all of human history from Adam thru Moses thru the building of the Temple. Rashi gives an INTERPRETATION THEME (human history) and INTERPRETATION KEY (use of numbers) to the SYMBOLIC interpretation (So 130= Adam's age when he begat successors, 70=# of nations, 10=10 commandments)
NotDone 31.7 Nu04-24a OTHER VERSES citation Rashi identifies the CITATION cross referenced in a verse. Nu04-24 states that a SIN offering should be slaughtered IN THE SAME PLACE THAT AN UP OFFERING is slaughtered (Rashi cites Lv01-11 which states that UP offerings are slaughtered in the NORTH). Rashi identifies the REFERENCE cited in the other verse